What’s Behind the Violence in Manipur? Understanding the Community Conflict


Manipur, a small northeastern state in India, has been grappling with widespread ethnic unrest that erupted on May 3. The violence is primarily between the Meiteis, the majority community, and the state’s tribal communities, including the Kukis and Nagas. The root cause of this conflict lies in the demand for Scheduled Tribe (ST) status by the Meitei community, leading to clashes, destruction of villages, and displacement of thousands of people. In this article, we will explore the reasons behind the violence and the overall dynamics of the situation in Manipur.

The Quest for ST Status and Historical Grievances

The ethnic tensions in Manipur have deep historical roots. The Meitei community, which accounts for more than half of the state’s population, has been seeking ST status for over a decade. They argue that they once enjoyed this status before Manipur’s merger with the Indian Union and now seek its restoration. This demand has been met with resistance and suspicion from the tribal communities, mainly the Kukis and Nagas, who have longstanding grievances and concerns about land rights and political representation.

The Kukis and Nagas have a history of separate identities, languages, and cultures, further adding to the complexity of the situation. The merger of Manipur with the Indian Union in 1949 brought these diverse groups together, but it also laid the foundation for a struggle over political power, resources, and recognition.

What triggered the violence in Manipur ?

The immediate trigger for the violence was a Manipur High Court order directing the state government to recommend ST status for the Meitei community to the Union Tribal Affairs Ministry by May 29. This directive resulted in protests and demonstrations by tribal groups, expressing their opposition to the inclusion of the Meiteis in the ST list.

The demand for ST status by the Meitei community is rooted in a desire for better representation and access to government welfare schemes and reservations. However, the tribal communities fear that granting ST status to the Meiteis could lead to further marginalization and loss of their own rights and opportunities.

Land Disputes and Eviction Drive:

The tension between the Meiteis and tribal communities was further exacerbated by the Manipur government’s eviction drive to clear reserved forests of tribal villagers. This move was perceived as anti-tribal and led to widespread discontent among the affected communities, particularly the Kukis. Land disputes have been a longstanding issue, with tribes viewing the government’s actions with suspicion and mistrust.

The fertile Imphal valley, where the Meiteis primarily reside, has been a focus of economic development, while the surrounding hills, home to the tribal communities, are rich in natural resources. This disparity has fueled tensions over land ownership and resource control.

Identity and Representation:

The political landscape in Manipur has been dominated by the Meiteis, who control a significant majority of seats in the regional parliament despite being slightly less than half of the population. This has fueled feelings of marginalization and alienation among the tribal communities, who have historically sought greater representation and recognition of their distinct identity.

The tribal communities, especially the Kukis and Nagas, have maintained their unique cultural heritage and traditions, leading to a sense of pride in their identities. They fear that political decisions made by the Meitei-dominated government may not adequately address their specific needs and concerns.

Use of Violence and Women’s Safety:

As tensions escalated, violence became a tragic consequence. Both sides have engaged in clashes, leading to the destruction of villages and religious sites. Disturbingly, women have become victims of violence and sexual assault, further deepening the divide and enmity between the communities.

The exploitation of women’s safety as an instrument of violence is deeply troubling and highlights the urgent need for greater gender sensitivity and protection measures in conflict zones.

Government Response:

The government, led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Bharatiya Janata Party, has deployed significant security forces to control the violence. However, some have criticized the delay in the government’s response, urging prompt action to bring stability to the region.

The central and state governments need to address the concerns of both the Meitei and tribal communities through open dialogue and inclusive policymaking. A comprehensive approach that addresses issues of land rights, political representation, economic opportunities, and cultural preservation is essential to finding a lasting resolution.

The situation in Manipur is a complex community conflict driven by historical grievances, land disputes, identity issues, and demands for political representation. The demand for Scheduled Tribe status by the Meitei community became the tipping point, leading to violent clashes with tribal groups. The displacement of thousands of people and the destruction of villages underscore the urgent need for dialogue, understanding, and empathy to find a peaceful resolution to the ethnic unrest in this beautiful northeastern state of India. The government’s response must focus on fostering a climate of trust, inclusion, and mutual respect to pave the way for sustainable peace and progress in Manipur.

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